Far from becoming a land of leisure, however, the abundant resources of British America and the ideology of its settlers, brought forth high levels of work. Rodgers argues that this work ethic spread and eventually reigned supreme in colonial America. The ethic was consistent with the American experience, since high returns to effort meant that hard work often yielded significant increases in wealth.
The systematic Navajo and Apache raids on New Mexico villages and ranches were ignored, as was the vulnerability of California, as the central government pulled back its soldiers to use them in recurrent civil wars and factional battles. After initial victories at The Alamo and Goliad, Santa Anna was decisively defeated by the Texans, who declared independence.
Only when large numbers of Americans arrived did they develop a sense of "lo mexicano," that is of "being Mexican," and that new identification had little to do with far-off Mexico. The Californios—who only numbered 10, inremained in California but were soon overwhelmed by the immigration of hundreds of thousands of newcomers to California, and largely became invisible to Anglos.
The Latino culture of the rest of the Southwest, especially New Mexico and southern Texas, called itself "Spanish" rather than "Mexican" to distinguish themselves from "los norteamericanos". The Latinos emphasized their own religion, language, customs and kinship ties, and drew into enclaves, rural colonies and urban barrios, which norteamericanos seldom entered; intermarriage rates were low.
Beginning in the s, immigrants from the U. Anglo and Hispanic Texas joined to fight Mexico indefeating an invading army and declaring the independence of Texas. The Texas Republic included Tejanos as leading citizens, but Mexico refused to recognize its legal existence.
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While there were some Americans who considered the war with Mexico illegal and immoral, others considered it part of Manifest Destiny —the American destiny to pursue the war.
The Americans won easily and the war ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
The United States in purchased the Gadsden Purchasea strip of land in southern New Mexico and Arizona that provided a route for a railroad. The result was unchallenged American control over a wide range of territory once held by Mexico, including the present day states of Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California.
The vast majority of Hispanic populations chose to stay and become full US citizens. By and large, the Hispanic populations of these areas supported the new government.
The Mexican government had become despotic under on-and-off-again President General Santa Annaand the US Government offered protection from Indian raids that Mexico had not prevented, meaning an end to civil wars of the sort that continuously wracked Mexico untiland it promised much greater long-run prosperity.
Although the treaty promised that the landowners in this newly acquired territory would enjoy full enjoyment and protection of their property as if they were citizens of the United States, many former citizens of Mexico lost their claims in lawsuits before state and federal courts.
In western Texas the political struggle sparked an armed conflict in which the Tejano majority forced the surrender of the Texas Rangersbut in the end lost their influence, offices, and economic opportunities. In other areas, particularly California, the Hispanic residents were simply overwhelmed by the number of Anglo settlers who rushed in, first in Northern California as a result of the California Gold Rush then decades later by the boom in Southern California.
Anglo miners drove Hispanic miners out of their camps, barred non-Anglos from testifying in court and imposed exclusionary standards similar to what was called Jim Crow in the case of African-Americans. During the Gold Rush, there was an immigration of Mexican miners to California.
About 20, Tejanos lived in South Texas in the s. The social structure has been analyzed by historian Randolph Campbell: South Texans of Hispanic descent lived in a three-tiered society during the antebellum years.
At the top stood the landed elite, the owners of huge ranches, many of which originated as haciendas in the Spanish colonial period. The elite based their economic lives on cattle raising. They sold some cattle in Mexico and Louisiana and exported hides and tallow, but access to major urban markets outside the region was so limited that South Texas ranchers did not develop highly commercial operations during the antebellum years.
This apparently suited most very well anyhow in that they viewed their ranches primarily as a way of life rather than a business investment and therefore focused on keeping their property intact as well as turning a profit These rancheros, as they were called, lived in one-room adobe houses and spent most of their time caring for their small herds of horses and cattle.
Although a smaller part of the population, they can be compared, it seems, to the plain folk Anglos of East Texas.
That is, they differed from the elite only in the extent of their property, not in their dependence on the land or the way they tried to live.
They lived in tiny one-room jacales, huts with walls of mud or any other material available and thatched roofs.
The one room served for both living and sleeping; cooking and eating took place in a separate enclosure made of grass or corn stalks. The poor, landless class also included vaqueros, the men who herded and took care of cattle.
Ranch owners and mission priests generally considered it beneath their dignity to do such work and thought of these first Texas cowboys simply as laborers riding horses. They were not bound to the land and could even expect to acquire property of their own someday.
Cartmen lived in San Antonio or along the route from that city to Indianola and earned their living by transporting food and merchandise from the coast to the interior. Using oxcarts, they virtually monopolized this particular freight route by moving goods quickly and cheaply.
Anglo competitors appeared by the s but were unable to match the rates charged by the Tejanos. Carting appears to have been the most lucrative business open to poorer Tejanos during these years.
In parts of south Texas and southern Arizona, Hispanic Americans were able to obtain positions within local government while in New Mexico Hispanic Americans remained an absolute majority of the population until the end of the 19th century.
The federal government delayed granting statehood to New Mexico because of its Hispanic American political leadership.HISTORY As early as A.D., Jamaica was settled by Arawaks who called the island Xaymaca.
In Columbus claimed the island for Spain and in , Juan de Esquivel began transporting Jamaican Arawaks to Hispaniola as slaves. Rebecca Matulka is a former digital communications specialist for the Energy Department. In , she joined the urbanagricultureinitiative.com team, covering all things energy efficiency -- from fuel cells and vehicle technologies to advancements in manufacturing and consumer energy efficiency tips.
trade employment, compared with a mere 30 per cent for the U.K.
London, Glasgow, Bath, and Barset had long since acquired their comple- ment of drapers, greengrocers, and apothecaries. Working Americans Since the s; Working Americans Since the s. Since the period of study, I believe Americas working standards have greatly improved.
Working conditions today are usually quite safe. The government has made laws saying that employers have to look after the workforce and provide safety equipment and other . Recent history. Since the s, economic and occupational insecurity have become a major problem for American workers, their families, and their communities.
Asian-American history is the history of ethnic and racial groups in the United States who are of Asian descent. Spickard () shows that "'Asian American' was an idea invented in the s to bring together Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino Americans for strategic political purposes.
Soon other Asian-origin groups, such as Korean, Vietnamese, Hmong, and South Asian Americans, were added.".