Explanations generally fall into one of three schools of thought: More recent scholarship draws on all three schools. Horowitz argues that this kinship "makes it possible for ethnic groups to think in terms of family resemblances". Ethnic groups will consequently always threaten the survival of civil governments but not the existence of nations formed by one ethnic group.
Volume 4, Issue 2, MarchPages: To cite this article: American Journal of Applied Psychology. It has been experienced with a number of armed conflicts, ethno-linguistic disputes, religious radicalism where in it catches the attention of most developed nations including US for their strategic interest over the region.
Accordingly, this paper attempted to identify and critically analyze the due reasons for an escalated war and instability throughout the region. By collecting secondary data from different reliable and verifiable sources, the data were analyzed using a combination of interpretivism and constructivism to guide the qualitative method of research.
Hence, the output of the research depicted that the HOA is challenged by diversified intra-state and inter-state conflicts among the neighboring countries owing to economic, social, political and historical grounds. Most of them were rooting to boarder and territorial conflicts and ethnic and religious polarization.
There are also resource centered disputes especially on the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and River Nile the start of Ethiopia to construct The Great Renaissance Dam brings tension and anxiety among the three competing countries i. Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. Though it is less sever, an armed cattle-raiding conflict in the frontier border lines of some of the states of the horn make them in trouble occasionally.
Footed on identity conflicts, clan or religious based political parties struggle for power by provoking the peaceful society to get in to violence for their personal interests at the expense of the community. Even after they took power these parties will be either dictatorial or against good governance which drives multifaceted dispute with in a society.
However, it is possible to peacefully resolve or prevent these issues including anticipating possible conflicts to early warn them, strategic intervention and necessary action, if required, by the sub-regional, regional and international organizations.
It is pertinent to use cultural conflict resolution methods by involving ethnic figureheads and religious leaders for discussion and to hamper conflict escalations. Background of the Study Conflict is undesirable. In its violent form, it claims the lives of many people, destroys property, and diverts human as well as financial resources away from development.
The Horn region is one of the most conflict-ravaged areas on the African continent. It is a region well known in African politics of being a volatile, hostile and poor place due to numerous conflicts, wars, and colorizations. The populations of the region have endured many inter-state and intra-state armed conflicts.
The fact that the Horn of Africa is central to the politics of the USA, Europe and the Arab world has gained worldwide recognition due to the frequent incidents of war in the region. The solution for the conflicts in the area should be sought in the context of the history, political system, religious affiliations and economic relations of the Horn countries to the rest of the world.
Recent changes in the political order of the world may have also changed the influence of the East on the Horn countries.
This has been demonstrated in the direction western countries are taking on matters concerning the Horn countries especially after the end of the cold war. This, however, does not mean that the old ties between the Horn countries and the East has been broken. The tie between them has only been loosened and it can be tightened in times of emergency.
This factor can intensify conflicts between neighbouring countries of the Horn Shemelis Gizaw, Violent conflict is more the norm than the exception in the Horn of Africa.
Conflicts are waged at various levels: Conflict involves various actors: It is a common for conflicts in the sub-region to promptly acquire a sub-regional dimension, thus transcending national borders by attracting kinsmen from across the border. The result is often a flow of refugees, who destabilize economic and trade relations between neighboring states, and pose a security threat to the sub-region.
Therefore, this study focuses on empirical explanations and critical analysis of the deep roots of conflicts in the Horn of Africa. Objectives of the Study The main objective of the study is to identify the root causes of conflicts in the horn of Africa.
Study Methodology Due to time and financial constraints, the study was entirely based on secondary data. And the collected data were analyzed using a combination of interpretivism and constructivism to guide the qualitative method of research Dessler, Conflict is an active disagreement between people with opposing opinions or principles.
It is present when two or more parties perceive that their interests are incompatible, express hostile attitudes, or take pursue their interests through actions that damage the other parties.
These parties may be individuals, small or large groups, and countries.
Interests can diverge in many ways: Conflict on the other hand can be defined as the contradictions inherent in power relations and which manifest themselves in individual and group interactions with one another and with nature in the pursuit of limited resources or opportunities.
Conflict is the motor of transformation and is either positive or negative.
It can be creatively transformed to ensure equity, progress and harmony; or destructively transformed to engender acute insecurity. Causes of Conflicts As it has been depicted by Meala;the literature available regarding the causes of conflict often showed how leading scholars influence the perception and, subsequently, shape policies.
They attempt to explain factors leading to conflicts, such as Kaplan1who perceived the African continent as wild and backward.Ethnic conflict, a form of conflict in which the objectives of at least one party are defined in ethnic terms, and the conflict, its antecedents, and possible solutions are perceived along ethnic urbanagricultureinitiative.com conflict is usually not about ethnic differences themselves but over political, economic, social, cultural, or territorial matters.
clusion is associated with civil war.1 However, our knowledge is much spar s-er when it comes to how the two are associated. To be sure, several inform a-tive case studies such as the ones highlighted above carefully explain the e s-calation process of ethnic conflict (see also Croissant ; DeVotta ).
If a civil war begins, it is more likely to be initiated by an ethnic group than any other type of group. We argue that ethnic groups, on average, are likely to have more grievances against the state, are likely to have an easier time organizing support and mobilizing a movement, and are more likely to face difficult-to-resolve bargaining problems.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or urbanagricultureinitiative.com aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies.
The term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile which was used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the. Theorising the International Escalation of ‘Ethnic’ Conflict The Social Ontology of Ethnicity, Executive Choice, and the Bridge Between* Martin Austvoll CSCW – Centre for the Study of Civil War PRIO – International Peace Research Institute, Oslo [email protected] Abstract.
Ethnic conflict, a form of conflict in which the objectives of at least one party are defined in ethnic terms, and the conflict, its antecedents, and possible solutions are perceived along ethnic lines. The conflict is usually not about ethnic differences themselves but over . Cnicinst a, Commander Navy Installation Command Ashore Protection Program - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. The causes of ethnic conflict in Multi-ethnic societies1 which were followed by ethnic conflicts that escalated to violence and civil war (Smith, , Wallenstein, ). Opposing groups may substitute ethnicity for the underlying factors to simplify identification of friend .
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