Theoretical background essay

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Theoretical background essay

Since the s, there has been speculation that nuclear fusion might be possible at much lower temperatures by catalytically fusing hydrogen absorbed in a metal catalyst.

Since the initial announcement, cold fusion research has continued by a small community of researchers who believe that such reactions happen and hope to gain wider recognition for their experimental evidence.

Early research The ability of palladium to absorb hydrogen was recognized as early as the nineteenth century by Thomas Graham. However, the authors later retracted that report, saying that the helium they measured was due to background from the air. After a brief period of interest by the wider scientific community, their reports were called into question by nuclear physicists.

Pons and Fleischmann never retracted their claims, but moved their research program to France after the controversy erupted. Events preceding announcement Electrolysis cell schematic Martin Fleischmann of the University of Southampton and Stanley Pons of the University of Utah hypothesized that the high compression ratio and mobility of deuterium that could be achieved within palladium metal using electrolysis might result in nuclear fusion.

Current Theoretical background essay applied continuously for many weeks, with the heavy water being renewed at intervals. These high temperature phases would last for two days or more and would repeat several times in any given experiment once they had occurred.

The calculated power leaving the cell was significantly higher than the input power during these high temperature phases. Eventually the high temperature phases would no longer occur within a particular cell. Fleischmann and Pons and co-workers met with Jones and co-workers on Theoretical background essay in Utah to share research and techniques.

Theoretical background essay

During this time, Fleischmann and Pons described their experiments as generating considerable "excess energy", in the sense that it could not be explained by chemical reactions alone. Jones, however, was measuring neutron flux, which was not of commercial interest.

Its discovery 30 years earlier had also been unexpected, though it was quickly replicated and explained within the existing physics framework.

PetersonFleischmann and Pons, backed by the solidity of their scientific credentials, repeatedly assured the journalists that cold fusion would solve environmental problems, and would provide a limitless inexhaustible source of clean energy, using only seawater as fuel.

The first paper submitted to Nature reproducing excess heat, although it passed peer-review, was rejected because most similar experiments were negative and there were no theories that could explain a positive result; [notes 1] [38] this paper was later accepted for publication by the journal Fusion Technology.

Nathan Lewisprofessor of chemistry at the California Institute of Technologyled one of the most ambitious validation efforts, trying many variations on the experiment without success, [39] while CERN physicist Douglas R. Morrison said that "essentially all" attempts in Western Europe had failed.

The Times called it a circus the same day, and the Boston Herald attacked cold fusion the following day. At the end of the session, eight of the nine leading speakers stated that they considered the initial Fleischmann and Pons claim dead, with the ninth, Johann Rafelskiabstaining.

Theoretical background essay

Koonin of Caltech called the Utah report a result of "the incompetence and delusion of Pons and Fleischmann," which was met with a standing ovation. Morrisona physicist representing CERNwas the first to call the episode an example of pathological science. Nuclear fusion of the type postulated would be inconsistent with current understanding and, if verified, would require established conjecture, perhaps even theory itself, to be extended in an unexpected way.

The panel was against special funding for cold fusion research, but supported modest funding of "focused experiments within the general funding system. Salamon, a physicist from the University of Utahand nine co-authors reported negative results.

Definition

The lawyer later apologized; Fleischmann defended the threat as a legitimate reaction to alleged bias displayed by cold-fusion critics. On 30 June the National Cold Fusion Institute closed after it ran out of funds; [69] it found no excess heat, and its reports of tritium production were met with indifference.

These small but committed groups of cold fusion researchers have continued to conduct experiments using Fleischmann and Pons electrolysis set-ups in spite of the rejection by the mainstream community.

Current research Cold fusion research continues today in a few specific venues, but the wider scientific community has generally marginalized the research being done and researchers have had difficulty publishing in mainstream journals. A pariah field, cast out by the scientific establishment.

Between cold fusion and respectable science there is virtually no communication at all. On the other hand, because the Cold-Fusioners see themselves as a community under siege, there is little internal criticism. Experiments and theories tend to be accepted at face value, for fear of providing even more fuel for external critics, if anyone outside the group was bothering to listen.Cold fusion is a hypothesized type of nuclear reaction that would occur at, or near, room urbanagricultureinitiative.com is compared with the "hot" fusion which takes place naturally within stars, under immense pressure and at temperatures of millions of degrees, and distinguished from muon-catalyzed urbanagricultureinitiative.com is currently no accepted theoretical model that would allow cold fusion .

Background information identifies and describes the history and nature of a well-defined research problem with reference to the existing literature.

The background information should indicate the root of the problem being studied, appropriate context of the problem in relation to theory, research.

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Photography and sociology have approximately the same birth date, if you count sociology’s birth as the publication of Comte’s work which gave it its name, and photography’s birth as the date in when Daguerre made public his method for fixing an image on a metal plate.

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