Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access The Odyssey: Being the author of both these classic works, Homer has influenced the ancient Greek civilization more profoundly than Shakespeare has influenced English literature. The Odyssey consists of twenty-four books, and is a sequel to the Iliad.
The epic celebrates virtues of national, military, religious, political, or historical significance. Increasingly, scholars distinguish between two types of epic.
The first, the primary epic, evolves from the mores, legends, or folk tales of a people and is initially developed in an oral tradition of storytelling.
Secondary epics, on the other hand, are literary. They are written from their inception and designed to appear as whole stories. The Odyssey New York: Citations are by book and line; for example, line 47 in Book 3 is represented as 3.
The Odyssey as Epic Composed around BC, The Odyssey is one of the earliest epics still in existence and, in many ways, sets the pattern for the genre, neatly fitting the definition of a primary epic that is, one that grows out of oral tradition.
The hero is long-suffering Odysseus, king of Ithaca and surrounding islands and hero of the Trojan War. He has been gone 20 years from his homeland, his wife, Penelope, and his son, Telemachus. Odysseus embodies many of the virtues of ancient Greek civilization and in some ways defines them.
He is not, however, without his flaws, which sometimes get him into trouble. Epics usually open with a statement of the subject and an invocation to the Muse or Muses — the nine sister goddesses in Greek mythology, the daughters of the king of gods, Zeus, and Mnemosyne "Memory".
Certain Muses preside over song and poetry, which are joined in epics. Sometimes Muses are assigned to all the liberal arts and sciences. Clio is usually thought of as the Muse of history. Erato takes care of lyrical love poetry. Calliope is the Muse most often associated with epic poetry.
Having invoked the Muse, the epic poet then begins in the middle of the tale; teachers sometimes use a Latin term, in medias res "in the middle of things"to identify this technique.
Beginning in the middle of the action, the poet then fills in significant prior events through flashbacks or narration. The Odyssey also employs most of the literary and poetic devices associated with epics: Although few contemporary authors attempt to compose epics, the influence of the genre and of The Odyssey is extensive.
The Setting of Ithaca While it includes recollections of earlier times, most of the action in The Odyssey takes place in the ten years following the Trojan War. Historically, was there ever such a war? Archaeological evidence indicates that the war may have taken place around bc and that the city Homer calls Troy was destroyed by fire.
The Odyssey was likely composed about five hundred years after these events. In the interim, countless bards had worked over the stories. The "Wanderings of Odysseus," as his travel adventures are often called, take place largely in a reality beyond our own; the settings vary widely.
Politically, the system in Ithaca is less formal than a city-state, but it does provide structure based on power. Odysseus is not just a great warrior or excellent seaman, although those are important talents. He also is the best carpenter that Ithaca has known, the best hunter of wild boar, the finest marksman, and the leading expert on animal husbandry.
Odysseus can plow the straightest furrow and mow the largest stretch of meadow in a day. In fact, it is his superior skill, his intelligence, and his prowess that enable him to maintain his power even after many years of absence. As long as he or his reputation can maintain control, Odysseus remains king of Ithaca and surrounding islands.
Along with power, of course, comes wealth. Because Ithaca has no coined money, wealth is measured by livestock, household furnishings, servants, slaves, and treasure.
Piracy, war, and raids on foreign cities are all accepted means of increasing wealth. The first thing that Odysseus does after leaving Troy, for example, is to sack Ismarus, stronghold of the Cicones. In addition to plunder, he captures the women.
Finally, the people of Ithaca believe strongly in fate and the right of the gods to alter human life at any time.The Odyssey by Homer Translated by Robert Fitzgerald Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.
Translated by Robert Fitzgerald The Odyssey Part One: A Son Seeks a Father Book 1: Athena Advises Telentaclnis Homer opens with an invocation, or prayer, asking the Muse9 to help him sing his tale.
Notice how the singer gives his listeners Telemachus, cope with another problem. - The Portrayal of Women in Homer's Odyssey In the first section of Odyssey, mortal women are presented to us as controlled by the stereotypes and expectations of the culture of the day, and it is only within that context that we can consider the examples Homer provides of .
- Homer's "The Odyssey" The Odyssey is a companion to The Iliad, a story of the Trojan War. Both The Iliad and The Odyssey are epic poems written by Homer.
In The Odyssey, Homer relates the misadventures of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, that occur during the decade following the defeat of Troy. The Odyssey translated by Robert Fitzgerald. Illustrated by Jackie Schuman. HOMER. out of 5 stars 1. His son (Telemachus) travels to find any information about his father's fait.
His wife (Penelope) must cunningly hold off suitors that are eating them out of house and home. Many movies took sections of The Odyssey, and expanded them Reviews: 4. Homeric characters are generally static.
Though they may be very complex and realistic, they do not change over the course of the work as characters in modern novels and stories do. Odysseus and especially Telemachus break this rule.