December 8, NASA: Life with arsenic December 7, Last week, in a much publicized news conference, NASA announced the discovery of a bacterium that can use arsenic instead of phosphorus.
Share13 Shares 49K Psychology is a relatively new science which gained popularity in the early 20th century with Wilhelm Wundt. In the zeal to learn about the human thought process and behavior, many early psychiatrists went too far with their experimentations, leading to stringent ethics codes and standards.
Though these are highly unethical experiments, it should be mentioned that they did pave the way to induct our current ethical standards of experiments, and that should be seen as a positive.
There is some crossover on this list with the Top 10 Evil Human Experiments. Three items from that list are reproduced here items 8, 9, and 10 for the sake of completeness. Johnson chose one of his graduate students, Mary Tudor, to conduct the experiment and he supervised her research.
After placing the children in control and experimental groups, Tudor gave positive speech therapy to half of the children, praising the fluency of their speech, and negative speech therapy to the other half, belittling the children for every speech imperfection and telling them they were stutterers.
Many of the normal speaking orphan children who received negative therapy in the experiment suffered negative psychological effects and some retained speech problems during the course of their life. The University of Iowa publicly apologized for the Monster Study in Army psychiatrists aided by chaplains aggressively ferreted out suspected homosexuals from the armed forces, sending them discretely to military psychiatric units, chiefly ward 22 of 1 Military Hospital at Voortrekkerhoogte, near Pretoria.
Although several cases of lesbian soldiers abused have been documented so far—including one botched sex-change operation—most of the victims appear to have been young, 16 to year-old white males drafted into the apartheid army.
He is also in private practice, as a member in good standing of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta.
Famed psychologist Philip Zimbardo led this experiment to examine that behavior of individuals when placed into roles of either prisoner or guard and the norms these individuals were expected to display. Prisoners were put into a situation purposely meant to cause disorientation, degradation, and depersonalization.
Guards were not given any specific directions or training on how to carry out their roles. Though at first, the students were unsure of how to carry out their roles, eventually they had no problem. The second day of the experiment invited a rebellion by the prisoners, which brought a severe response from the guards.
Things only went downhill from there. Guards implemented a privilege system meant to break solidarity between prisoners and create distrust between them. The guards became paranoid about the prisoners, believing they were out to get them. Prisoners began to experience emotional disturbances, depression, and learned helplessness.
During this time, prisoners were visited by a prison chaplain. They identified themselves as numbers rather than their names, and when asked how they planned to leave the prison, prisoners were confused. They had completely assimilated into their roles.
Zimbardo ended the experiment after five days, when he realized just how real the prison had become to the subjects. Though the experiment lasted only a short time, the results are very telling.
How quickly someone can abuse their control when put into the right circumstances. The scandal at Abu Ghraib that shocked the U. The monkey drug trials of were one such case. In this experiment, a large group of monkeys and rats were trained to inject themselves with an assortment of drugs, including morphine, alcohol, codeine, cocaine, and amphetamines.
Once the animals were capable of self-injecting, they were left to their own devices with a large supply of each drug. The animals were so disturbed as one would expect that some tried so hard to escape that they broke their arms in the process.
The monkeys taking cocaine suffered convulsions and in some cases tore off their own fingers possible as a consequence of hallucinationsone monkey taking amphetamines tore all of the fur from his arm and abdomen, and in the case of cocaine and morphine combined, death would occur within 2 weeks.
The point of the experiment was simply to understand the effects of addiction and drug use; a point which, I think, most rational and ethical people would know did not require such horrendous treatment of animals. The aim of this experiment was to see if all people have a common expression when feeling disgust, shock, joy, and so on.
Most of the participants in the experiment were students. They were taken to a lab and their faces were painted with black lines, in order to study the movements of their facial muscles.
They were then exposed to a variety of stimuli designed to create a strong reaction. As each person reacted, they were photographed by Landis. The subjects were made to smell ammonia, to look at pornography, and to put their hands into a bucket of frogs.
But the controversy around this study was the final part of the test. Participants were shown a live rat and given instructions to behead it.
While all the participants were repelled by the idea, fully one third did it.
The situation was made worse by the fact that most of the students had no idea how to perform this operation in a humane manner and the animals were forced to experience great suffering.Animals Used for Experimentation.
Right now, millions of mice, rats, rabbits, primates, cats, dogs, and other animals are locked inside barren cages in laboratories across the country. A Norwegian study in had reported on the pathologic manifestations of untreated syphilis in several hundred white males.
This study is known as a retrospective study, since investigators pieced together information from the histories of patients who had already contracted syphilis but . In addition to the terms below, you can use the Table of Contents on the left and the Search Center above it to find the information you are looking for.
A candle for Christmas December 20, Musings posts items of historical interest from time to time. This one is a book: a book about what happens when a candle burns, a book about chemistry -- premised on the observations of the candle.
The Importance of Stem Cell Research - Stem cell research is a topic almost everybody in the world has a viewpoint on. Many view the issue of stem cell research and stem cell therapy as morally wrong and a crime against humanity, others view the study of stem cells as the next step in modern science.
INFOS - Les Actus de Leonardo & Leonardo/Olats FEAT and Trust Me, I'm An Artist New Articles. You have read all the magazines you bought at the airport, you have visited all the exhibitions at Documenta, Munster, Venice (or wherever-you-are), you have posted all those nice pictures of cute animals, seas, lakes, mountains, cities, food, artworks on social network, you have done none of the above?