In practice, most contemporary Japanese eat about 1. There are other measurements that derive from the gou or perhaps the other way aroundsuch as the koku, which was considered the amount of rice that a single person would consume over the course of a year. This is one of the human-centric forms of measurement that has survived the metric push; you can find various examples of this in many otherwise metric-converted countries. It turns out some studies show that those metrics often make certain categories of estimation easier for people.
My assumptions are that glass waste is recycled more efficiently than plastic waste. Plastic Cup Flow Diagram Figure 4.
Glass Cup Flow Diagram Material Extraction The raw material extraction involved with plastics starts with the extraction of crude oil. The steps taken to establish an extraction site for crude oil is an expensive operation that pose a serious threat to the surrounding environment.
The threats imposed are contamination to groundwater and ground instability. Crude oil extraction sites can be on land or at sea. There is a considerable energy input for constructing oil rigs that extract crude oil at sea and accidents have proven how destructive they can be to the environment.
Extraction sites on land pose a serious threat to those living near an extraction well and the surrounding environment in general.
The machinery involved to assemble the extraction equipment and the operating equipment on site produce a considerable amount of greenhouse gases.
Other raw materials extracted besides crude oil are coal, natural gas, minerals and plants which lead to land displacement and greenhouse gases. Through out the material extraction process emissions are released into the air, soil and water.
The raw material extraction involved with glass begins with the extraction of sand, limestone, gypsum, dolomite and soda ash. For the extraction of these required materials land displacement will be a consequence that follows. A serious threat to the surrounding environment.
Land displacement destroys the land and renders it useless which could be devastating to animals that naturally dwell in the local area. The use of machinery to excavate and transport these materials will produce a considerable amount of greenhouse gases. Overall the emissions emitted are released into the air and water.
Product Manufacture The production of plastics begins with the the byproduct of petroleum, a byproduct of crude oil. Chemists need carbon and hydrogen to make raw plastic. They get the carbon from coal or crude oil and the hydrogen from natural gas or water.
From here small pellets called polymers, which are created from monomers, are the raw form of plastic. These polymer pellets are then heated and molded into desired shapes, sizes and densities. Dyes are added to batches to give the plastic color.
Plastic is mass produced and utilizes a lot of machinery which has a high energy consumption in order to keep the factory operational. A total of 7 million tons of non-durable plastics were generated in the United States in Throughout the manufacturing of plastic, emissions are released into the air and water.
Soda ash acts like a flux and helps lower the melting temperature of the sand. Limestone acts like a stablizer to make the finish glass less water soluble. Furnaces are very large in size and can make up to pounds of glass at a time.
Generally, pounds of batch are used per charge, a charge being the time it takes to melt the raw materials into glass which is about two hours. But after two hours have passed, chemical reactions are still taking place and methane gas is being released. The glass cooks for an additional six hours so the degassing can cease.
Finished glass is inert and non-toxic. About 1 million square meters of glass is made everyday. Overall throughout the production process two tonnes of CO2 are emitted per tonne of glass, including transportation. Ships, trucks, and railways are common methods for transporting consumer goods from the local level up to the national level.
At this stage emissions that are emitted are released into the atmosphere and water. A considerably large energy input of fossil fuels is needed for transportation to take place. The packaging and transportation of glass is generally the same to that of plastic.
Differences like heavier product weight, susceptibility to damage, careful transporting relatively coincide with the nature of glass.
Both products use a combination of plastic and cardboard for packaging. Besides minor differences in the nature of the two products the transportation methods are generally the same with similar negative outputs towards the environment.
Product Use When the plastic cups reach the consumer they are used for a number of things, such as group gatherings both large and small.The most common form of plastic #6 is EPS.
Though it is often hard to recycle, other plastic #6 products, such as cups, CD and DVD cases, are easier. Feb 12, · Instead of cups with spouts, use cups with straws or simply place a straw in a paper or plastic cup, she says. Continued New York City speech pathologist Joslin Zeplin agrees.
We will write a custom essay sample on Sustainability paper vs. plastic specifically for you for only $ $/page. Order now Plastic Cups vs Styro Cups vs. Paper Cups ; Plastic pollution ; Charging for Plastic Bags ; send me this sample. United States Plastic Corporation distributes industrial and commercial plastic products such as tanks, barrels, buckets, bags, tubing, plastic sheet, pvc pipe, Rubbermaid carts, Nalgene.
The Pros and Cons of Styrofoam Styrofoam By Any Other Name We know it as Styrofoam, but its technical name is “foamed polystyrene”.
However, what- material for such things as beverage cups and insulation. Until the s, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) were used as a blowing agent in the manufac-turing process.
However, because the break-. Paper vs plastic. A life cycle inventory of a comparison of paper vs plastic cups shows environmental effects of both with no clear winner. Polyethylene (PE) is a petroleum-based coating on paper cups that can slow down the process of biodegrading of the paper it coats.