Visit Website Did you know? Four decades after Constantine made Christianity Rome's official religion, Emperor Julian—known as the Apostate—tried to revive the pagan cults and temples of the past, but the process was reversed after his death, and Julian was the last pagan emperor of Rome. The magistrates, though elected by the people, were drawn largely from the Senate, which was dominated by the patricians, or the descendants of the original senators from the time of Romulus.
The Augustus of Prima Porta early 1st century AD The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time.
It was one of the largest empires in world history. At its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. The longevity and vast extent of the empire ensured the lasting influence of Latin and Greek language, culture, religion, inventions, architecture, philosophy, law and forms of government over the empire's descendants.
Throughout the European medieval periodattempts were even made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state ; and the Holy Roman Empire. By means of European colonialism following the Renaissanceand their descendant states, Greco-Roman and Judaeo-Christian culture was exported on a worldwide scale, playing a crucial role in the development of the modern world.
Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. It was ruled, not by emperorsbut by annually elected magistrates Roman Consuls above all in conjunction with the senate.
This was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was briefly perpetual dictator before being assassinated. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps "first citizen" with proconsular imperiumthus beginning the Principate the first epoch of Roman imperial history, usually dated from 27 BC to ADand gave him the name " Augustus " "the venerated".
Though the old constitutional machinery remained in place, Augustus came to predominate it.
Although the republic stood in name, contemporaries of Augustus knew it was just a veil and that Augustus had all meaningful authority in Rome.
During the years of his rule, a new constitutional order emerged in part organically and in part by designso that, upon his death, this new constitutional order operated as before when Tiberius was accepted as the new emperor.
The years that began with Augustus's rule is traditionally regarded as the Pax Romana "Roman Peace". During this period, the cohesion of the empire was furthered by a degree of social stability and economic prosperity that Rome had never before experienced.
Uprisings in the provinces were infrequent, but put down "mercilessly and swiftly" when they occurred. The success of Augustus in establishing principles of dynastic succession was limited by his outliving a number of talented potential heirs.
Vespasian became the founder of the brief Flavian dynastyto be followed by the Nerva—Antonine dynasty which produced the " Five Good Emperors ": Trajan, unlike all his predecessors, was not an Italian, but came from a family of Roman settlers in Spain.
But despite this gesture of universality, the Severan dynasty was tumultuous—an emperor's reign was ended routinely by his murder or execution—and, following its collapse, the Roman Empire was engulfed by the Crisis of the Third Centurya period of invasionscivil strifeeconomic disorderand plague.
Aurelian reigned — brought the empire back from the brink and stabilized it. Diocletian completed the work of fully restoring the empire, but declined the role of princeps and became the first emperor to be addressed regularly as domine, "master" or "lord".
Diocletian's reign also brought the empire's most concerted effort against the perceived threat of Christianitythe "Great Persecution". The state of absolute monarchy that began with Diocletian endured until the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire in Even though northern invasions took place throughout the life of the Empire, this period officially began in the IV century and lasted for many centuries during which the western territory was under the dominion of foreign northern rulers, a notable one being Charlemagne.
Historically, this event marked the transition between the ancient world and the medieval ages. Diocletian divided the empire into four regions, each ruled by a separate emperorthe Tetrarchy.The empire: 27 BC - AD 14 By a coincidence of history the Roman empire, at its start, has recently achieved a new geographical completeness.
The campaigns of Pompey have led to the annexation of Syria in 64 BC and the capture of Jerusalem in KS2 History Roman Empire learning resources for adults, children, parents and teachers. The history of the Roman Empire can be divided into three distinct periods: The Period of Kings ( BC), Republican Rome ( BC), and Imperial Rome (31 BC – AD ).
Founding (c. BC) Rome was founded around BC in the areas of ancient Italy known as Etruria and Latium.
Main Holy Roman Empire Page. Page Two. Page Three. Page Four. Page Five. Page Six. Page Seven. Page Eight. Page Nine. Page Ten. Page Eleven. Page Twelve. Page Thirteen. Holy Roman Empire: Holy Roman Empire, the varying complex of lands in western and central Europe ruled over first by Frankish and then by German kings for 10 centuries (–).
Learn more about the origins, history, and significance of the Holy Roman Empire in this article. The history of the Roman Empire covers the history of ancient Rome from the fall of the Roman Republic in 27 BC until the abdication of the last Western emperor in AD.
Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the Republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside of the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC.
Civil war engulfed the Roman state in the mid .