The executive executes and enforces law. In political systems based on the principle of separation of powersauthority is distributed among several branches executive, legislativejudicial —an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws the role of the legislature or interpret them the role of the judiciary. Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary.
The executive branch The executive branch is headed by the presidentwho must be a natural-born citizen of the United States, at least 35 years old, and a resident of the country for at least 14 years.
A president is elected indirectly by the people through an electoral college system to a four-year term and is limited to two elected terms of office by the Twenty-second Amendment The formal constitutional responsibilities vested in the presidency of the United States include serving as commander in chief of the armed forces; negotiating treaties; appointing federal judges, ambassadors, and cabinet officials; and acting as head of state.
Members of the cabinet and presidential aides serve at the pleasure of the president and may be dismissed by him at any time. Courtesy of the George W. Governed by commissions appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate commissioners may not be removed by the presidentthese agencies protect the public interest by enforcing rules and resolving disputes over federal regulations.
Also part of the executive branch are government corporations e. Postal Servicewhich supply services to consumers that could be provided by private Executive branch, and independent executive agencies e. The legislative branch The U.
Congressthe legislative branch of the federal government, consists of two houses: Powers granted to Congress under the Constitution include the power to levy taxes, borrow money, regulate interstate commerceimpeach and convict the president, declare war, discipline its own membership, and determine its rules of procedure.
The president may veto a bill, but a veto can be overridden by a two-thirds vote of both houses. The House of Representatives may impeach a president or another public official by a majority vote; trials of impeached officials are conducted by the Senate, and a two-thirds majority is necessary to convict and remove the individual from office.
Congress is assisted in its duties by the General Accounting Office GAOwhich examines all federal receipts and expenditures by auditing federal programs and assessing the fiscal impact of proposed legislation, and by the Congressional Budget Office CBOa legislative counterpart to the OMB, which assesses budget data, analyzes the fiscal impact of alternative policies, and makes economic forecasts.
The House of Representatives is chosen by the direct vote of the electorate in single-member districts in each state. The number of representatives allotted to each state is based on its population as determined by a decennial census ; states sometimes gain or lose seats, depending on population shifts.
The overall membership of the House has been since the s, though it was temporarily expanded to after Hawaii and Alaska were admitted as states in Members must be at least 25 years old, residents of the states from which they are elected, and previously citizens of the United States for at least seven years.
It has become a practical imperative—though not a constitutional requirement—that a member be an inhabitant of the district that elects him.
Members serve two-year terms, and there is no limit on the number of terms they may serve. The speaker of the Housewho is chosen by the majority party, presides over debate, appoints members of select and conference committees, and performs other important duties; he is second in the line of presidential succession following the vice president.
The parliamentary leaders of the two main parties are the majority floor leader and the minority floor leader. The floor leaders are assisted by party whipswho are responsible for maintaining contact between the leadership and the members of the House.
Bills introduced by members in the House of Representatives are received by standing committees, which can amendexpedite, delay, or kill legislation.
Each committee is chaired by a member of the majority party, who traditionally attained this position on the basis of seniority, though the importance of seniority has eroded somewhat since the s.
Among the most important committees are those on Appropriations, Ways and Means, and Rules. The Rules Committee, for example, has significant power to determine which bills will be brought to the floor of the House for consideration and whether amendments will be allowed on a bill when it is debated by the entire House.
Each state elects two senators at large. Senators must be at least 30 years old, residents of the state from which they are elected, and previously citizens of the United States for at least nine years.
They serve six-year terms, which are arranged so that one-third of the Senate is elected every two years. Senators also are not subject to term limits. The vice president serves as president of the Senate, casting a vote only in the case of a tie, and in his absence the Senate is chaired by a president pro tempore, who is elected by the Senate and is third in the line of succession to the presidency.
Debate is almost unlimited and may be used to delay a vote on a bill indefinitely. Such a delay, known as a filibustercan be ended by three-fifths of the Senate through a procedure called cloture. Treaties negotiated by the president with other governments must be ratified by a two-thirds vote of the Senate.
The Senate also has the power to confirm or reject presidentially appointed federal judges, ambassadors, and cabinet officials.The branch of federal and state government that is broadly responsible for implementing, supporting, and enforcing the laws made by the legislative branch and interpreted by the judicial branch.
At the state level, the executive includes governors and their staffs. Aug 21, · Watch video · The executive branch is one of three primary parts of the U.S. government—alongside the legislative and the judicial branches—and is responsible for carrying out and executing the nation’s laws.
The Executive Branch conducts diplomacy with other nations, and the President has the power to negotiate and sign treaties, which also must be ratified by two-thirds of the Senate.
The executive branch is composed of the President, Vice President, and Cabinet members. President The President is the head of state, head of the U.S. government and the commander-in-chief of the U.S.
military. In this context, the executive consists of a leader(s) of an office or multiple offices. Specifically, the top leadership roles of the executive branch may include: head of state – often the supreme leader, the president or monarch, the chief public representative and living symbol of national unity.
Executive Branch - The President The leader of the Executive Branch is the President of the United States. The President holds all the power for this branch of the government and the other members report to the President.