Essays on intellectual health

The Statute of Anne came into force in The Statute of Monopolies and the British Statute of Anne are seen as the origins of patent law and copyright respectively, [8] firmly establishing the concept of intellectual property. The first known use of the term intellectual property dates towhen a piece published in the Monthly Review used the phrase. The organization subsequently relocated to Geneva inand was succeeded in with the establishment of the World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO by treaty as an agency of the United Nations. According to legal scholar Mark Lemleyit was only at this point that the term really began to be used in the United States which had not been a party to the Berne Convention[4] and it did not enter popular usage there until passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in

Essays on intellectual health

Some are ambiguous or misleading; others presuppose a viewpoint that we disagree with, and we hope you disagree with it too. However, the GNU browser IceCat blocks advertisements that track the user as consequence of broader measures to prevent surveillance by web sites.

That is not what free software means. For instance, freedom 2 says that that user is free to make another copy Essays on intellectual health give or sell it to you.

But no user is obligated to do that for you; you do not have a right to demand a copy of that program from any user. In particular, if you write a program yourself and never offer a copy to anyone else, that program is free software albeit in a trivial way, because every user that has a copy has the four essential freedoms since the only such user is you.

In practice, when many users have copies of a program, someone is sure to post it on the internet, giving everyone access to it.

We think people ought to do that, if the program is useful. But that isn't a requirement of free software. There is one specific point in which a question of having access is directly pertinent to free software: This applies to the special case in which the user already has a copy of the program in non-source form.

Instead of with free software, the public has access to the program, we say, with free software, the users have the essential freedoms and with free software, the users have control of what the program does for them. In effect, it assumes that free software ought to coexist with software that does not respect users' freedom.

We believe that distribution as free software is the only ethical way to make software available for others to use. The other methods, nonfree software and Service as a Software Substitute subjugate their users. It is used for a range of different activities whose only common characteristic is that they use the Internet for something beyond transmitting files.

Thus, the term spreads confusion. When thinking about or responding to a statement someone else has made using this term, the first step is to clarify the topic.

Essays on intellectual health

What scenario is the statement about? What is a good, clear term for that scenario? Once the topic is clearly formulated, coherent thought about it becomes possible. In most scenarios, that is foolish because it exposes you to surveillance. Another meaning which overlaps that but is not the same thing is Service as a Software Substitutewhich denies you control over your computing.

Essays on intellectual health

You should never use SaaSS. Another meaning is renting a remote physical server, or virtual server. These practices are ok under certain circumstances. Another meaning is accessing your own server from your own mobile device.

That raises no particular ethical issues. The NIST definition of "cloud computing" mentions three scenarios that raise different ethical issues: Software as a Service as defined by NIST overlaps considerably with Service as a Software Substitute, which mistreats the user, but the two concepts are not equivalent.Definition of Intellectual Wellness.

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Intellectual Development Essay for Stanford. Stanford students possess an intellectual vitality. Reflect on an idea or experience that has been important to your intellectual development. ( word limit). Read the top college essays that worked at Stanford and more.

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Spinoza, Benedict De | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy