Mili, you have a great flow to the essay and good vocabulary too.
Both old and new materials were used increasingly in the engineering industry, which was transformed since the end of World War II by the introduction of control engineering, automation, and computerized techniques. The vital piece of equipment has been the computer,… Historical development of automation The technology of automation has evolved from the related field of mechanizationwhich had its beginnings in the Industrial Revolution.
Mechanization refers to the replacement of human or animal power with mechanical power of some form. Some of the important historical developments in mechanization and automation leading to modern automated systems are described here. Thousands of years were undoubtedly required for the development of simple mechanical devices and machines such as the wheel, the lever, and the pulley, by which the power of human muscle could be magnified.
The next extension was the development of powered machines that did not require human strength to operate. Examples of these machines include waterwheels, windmills, and simple steam-driven devices.
More than 2, years ago the Chinese developed trip-hammers powered by flowing water and waterwheels. The early Greeks experimented with simple reaction motors powered by steam. The mechanical clock, representing a rather complex assembly with its own built-in power source a weightwas developed about in Europe.
Windmills, with mechanisms for automatically turning the sails, were developed during the Middle Ages in Europe and the Middle East. The steam engine represented a major advance in the development of powered machines and marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. During the two centuries since the introduction of the Watt steam engine, powered engines and machines have been devised that obtain their energy from steam, electricity, and chemical, mechanical, and nuclear sources.
Each new development in the history of powered machines has brought with it an increased requirement for control devices to harness the power of the machine. The earliest steam engines required a person to open and close the valves, first to admit steam into the piston chamber and then to exhaust it.
Later a slide valve mechanism was devised to automatically accomplish these functions. This requirement for human attention in the operation of the steam engine was eliminated by the flying-ball governor.
Invented by James Watt in England, this device consisted of a weighted ball on a hinged arm, mechanically coupled to the output shaft of the engine. As the rotational speed of the shaft increased, centrifugal force caused the weighted ball to be moved outward.
This motion controlled a valve that reduced the steam being fed to the engine, thus slowing the engine.
The flying-ball governor remains an elegant early example of a negative feedback control system, in which the increasing output of the system is used to decrease the activity of the system.
Negative feedback is widely used as a means of automatic control to achieve a constant operating level for a system. A common example of a feedback control system is the thermostat used in modern buildings to control room temperature. In this device, a decrease in room temperature causes an electrical switch to close, thus turning on the heating unit.
As room temperature rises, the switch opens and the heat supply is turned off.
The thermostat can be set to turn on the heating unit at any particular set point. Another important development in the history of automation was the Jacquard loom see photographwhich demonstrated the concept of a programmable machine.
About the French inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised an automatic loom capable of producing complex patterns in textiles by controlling the motions of many shuttles of different coloured threads.
The selection of the different patterns was determined by a program contained in steel cards in which holes were punched. These cards were the ancestors of the paper cards and tapes that control modern automatic machines.
Although Babbage was never able to complete it, this device was the precursor of the modern digital computer. See computers, history of. Page 1 of + companies worldwide approach us every year for their revenue growth inititatives Global top strategist rely on us for their growth strategies.
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Despite the supremacy of the British navy in the 18th century, the Colonial naval forces won many battles. This picture depicts the naval engagement of July 7, , between the American frigates Hancock, Boston, and HMS Fox, and the British frigates Flora and Rainbow.
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manufacturing industry. Index Terms--Automobile Manufacture, Energy, Energy Management, Mechanical Systems, Modeling, Load Modeling, Research and Development I.
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