In Spain, the art of the Romanesque period represented a smooth transition from the preceding Pre-Romanesque and Mozarabic styles.
Baroque and late Baroque, or Rococo, are loosely defined terms, generally applied by common consent to European art of the period from the early 17th century to the midth century. The origin of the term The term Baroque probably ultimately derived from the Italian word barocco, which philosophers used during the Middle Ages to describe an obstacle in schematic logic.
Subsequently the word came to denote any contorted idea or involuted process of thought. In art criticism the word Baroque came to be used to describe anything irregular, bizarre, or otherwise departing from established rules and proportions.
This biased view of 17th-century art styles was held with few modifications by critics from Johann Winckelmann to John Ruskin and Jacob Burckhardtand until the late 19th century the term always carried the implication of odd, grotesque, exaggerated, and overdecorated.
Three main tendencies of the era Three broader cultural and intellectual tendencies had a profound impact on Baroque art as well as Baroque music.
The first of these was the emergence of the Counter-Reformation and the expansion of its domain, both territorially and intellectually.
By the last decades Baroque naturalism in spain the 16th century the refined, courtly style known as Mannerism had ceased to be an effective means of expression, and its inadequacy for religious art was being increasingly felt in artistic circles.
To this end the church adopted a conscious artistic program whose art products would make an overtly emotional and sensory appeal to the faithful. The Baroque style that evolved from this program was paradoxically both sensuous and spiritual; while a naturalistic treatment rendered the religious image more accessible to the average churchgoer, dramatic and illusory effects were used to stimulate piety and devotion and convey an impression of the splendour of the divine.
Baroque church ceilings thus dissolved in painted scenes that presented vivid views of the infinite to the observer and directed the senses toward heavenly concerns. The second tendency was the consolidation of absolute monarchiesaccompanied by a simultaneous crystallization of a prominent and powerful middle class, which now came to play a role in art patronage.
Baroque palaces were built on an expanded and monumental scale in order to display the power and grandeur of the centralized state, a phenomenon best displayed in the royal palace and gardens at Versailles. Yet at the same time the development of a picture market for the middle class and its taste for realism may be seen in the works of the brothers Le Nain and Georges de La Tour in France and in the varied schools of 17th-century Dutch painting.
For a detailed discussion of this phenomenon, see Rembrandt van Rijn. The Lamentation over St. Courtesy of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Preussischer Kulturbesitz The third tendency was a new interest in nature and a general broadening of human intellectual horizons, spurred by developments in science and by explorations of the globe.
These simultaneously produced a new sense both of human insignificance particularly abetted by the Copernican displacement of the Earth from the centre of the universe and of the unsuspected complexity and infinitude of the natural world.
The development of 17th-century landscape painting, in which humans are frequently portrayed as minute figures in a vast natural setting, is indicative of this changing awareness of the human condition.
Architecture, painting, and sculpture The arts present an unusual diversity in the Baroque period, chiefly because currents of naturalism and classicism coexisted and intermingled with the typical Baroque style.
Indeed, Annibale Carracci and Caravaggiothe two Italian painters who decisively broke with Mannerism in the s and thus helped usher in the Baroque style, painted, respectively, in classicist and realist modes. A specifically Baroque style of painting arose in Rome in the s and culminated in the monumental painted ceilings and other church decorations of Pietro da CortonaGuido ReniIl GuercinoDomenichinoand countless lesser artists.
The greatest of the Baroque sculptor-architects was Gian Lorenzo Berniniwho designed both the baldachin with spiral columns above the altar of St.
French architecture is even less recognizably Baroque in its pronounced qualities of subtlety, elegance, and restraint. Baroque tenets were enthusiastically adopted in staunchly Roman Catholic Spain, however, particularly in architecture. Art in the Netherlands was conditioned by the realist tastes of its dominant middle-class patrons, and thus both the innumerable genre and landscape painters of that country and such towering masters as Rembrandt and Frans Hals remained independent of the Baroque style in important respects.
The Baroque did have a notable impact in England, however, particularly in the churches and palaces designed, respectively, by Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh.
In ornate churches, monasteries, and palaces designed by J. Fischer von ErlachJ. Detail of Baroque stuccowork by Egid Quirin Asam, c.Baroque Painting and Sculpture in Italy/Spain: During the Baroque period, there was a dramatic religious split in the Church with the formation of Protestantism.
Catholics reacted with the Counter-Reformation to revitalize Catholicism. What Are Four Characteristics of Baroque Art? By Nicole Alexander ; The movement’s initial works began in Italy but went on to be seen in France, Germany, Spain and the Netherlands.
During this time, artists were encouraged by the Catholic Church to exhibit stronger religious characteristics in their paintings. Naturalism was also. Chapter 4: Baroque 6 the style known as naturalism, which meant he repeatedly violated the terms of Cardinal Paleotti’s decorum.
He was also prone to outbursts of violence.
Accounts of his many encounters with the police were reported in the avvisi, Roman precursors to modern newspapers. baroque naturalism in Spain: Velazquez in Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez we see a moment in the life of the spanish court the king and queen are reflect in the back mirror- we are honored by actually occupying their position.
Detail from Supper at Emmaus () National Gallery, London. Caravaggio. Another masterpiece of Christian art from the Counter-Reformation.
Introduction. In general, "Baroque painting" was a reflection of the profound political and cultural changes then emerging across Europe.
Spanish art was particularly influenced by Italy and France during the Baroque and Neoclassical periods, but Spanish art has often had very distinctive characteristics, partly explained by the Moorish heritage in Spain (especially in Andalusia), and through the political and cultural climate in Spain during the Counter-Reformation and the subsequent eclipse of Spanish power under the Bourbon dynasty.