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CAD occurs when the coronary arteries become hardened and narrowed; this is due to the buildup of plaque on the inner lining of the arteries.
Blood flow to the heart is reduced as plaque narrows the coronary arteries, thereby decreasing the oxygen supply to the heart muscle. This loss of oxygen in the blood can lead to ischemia and later, myocardial infarction.
The patient in this case is a 63 year old male with CAD that led to a myocardial infarction in April of In speaking with the patient about his condition, a series of questions regarding the meaning of the illness to him, his family, and how he dealt with it were asked.
In addition to feeling like he was lucky to be alive, the patient voiced the need to enjoy everyday. She became very involved in what he ate, his medications, and exercise regimen. The disease had most of its impact on the patient for the first year after he had the heart attack.
Reduction in salt intake, dropping weight, and keeping an exercise program were all steps he took to prevent further damage to his arteries. However, after the first year he started to gain weight, add salt to his food, and quit his exercise program.
The course of the illness has seemed to slow down. High-density lipoprotein HDL levels have increased, while low-density lipoprotein LDL levels have drastically decreased. The infarction has left the patient winded under physical stress, but the patient notes that he can still do the things he used to do, but just needs to take frequent naps.
To keep momentum behind these declining factors, the patient is still receiving support from his wife. Although, the patient has slipped in terms of a strict diet and exercise plan, his wife continues to make sure his diet is reduced in fat and that he has some form of exercise several days a week.
Overall, familial support is given to the patient, but the impetus of improvement still lies with the patient.
CAD, as mentioned previously, occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the coronary arteries become hardened and narrowed. This is due to atherosclerosis, the most common cause of coronary artery obstruction. This arterial plaque can be classified a couple of ways, hard and stable, or soft and unstable.
Hard plaque causes the arterial walls to thicken and harden. This condition is associated more with angina than with a heart attack, but heart attacks frequently occur with hard plaque. Soft plaque is more likely to break open or apart and cause blood clots.
This can lead to infarction. There are several factors that lead to the development of CAD. The first is dyslipidemia. Increased levels of LDLs have been shown to result in dysfunction of the endothelial cells and increased oxidation of macrophages.
Increased very low-density lipoprotein VLDL levels are a risk factor for CAD in people who have diabetes, middle-aged men, and in people with other lipoprotein abnormalities. Contrarily, high HDL levels are thought to be important in preventing atherosclerosis because they function to bring excess cholesterol from the tissues to the liver where it can be metabolized.
Cigarette smoking is a major factor in developing CAD. Cigarette smoking has been shown to cause endothelial destruction and reduce the oxygen content of arterial blood. Hypertension is also a developing factor for CAD.
It contributes to injury of the endothelial cells and cause myocardial demand for coronary flow because of myocardial hypertrophy. Other factors include diabetes mellitus, alcohol, stress, sedentary lifestyle, genetic predisposition, and obesity.
Parallels can be seen with classic predisposing factors and the factors that accelerated CAD in the patient. He was a middle-aged man, obese, a high-stress individual, and was a prolific cigarette smoker for more than 35 years of his life.
The actual arterial blockage for the patient was not noticed until he had a heart attack in When he was in the hospital, an angiogram was performed and a blockage to his left anterior descending artery was noticed. The blockage showed that almost no blood was getting to the anterior portion of the heart.
After an angioplasty was performed, a new angiogram was done and the amount of blockage was decreased substantially. Many treatments and preventative measures can be taken to monitor and suppress CAD.
Medications, surgical procedures, labs, lifestyle changes, and patient teaching are all factors in helping the patient overcome this disease.
Medications for the treatment and prevention of CAD are varied. Some medications decrease the workload on the heart and provide symptomatic relief, while others decrease the chance of having a heart attack or sudden death, and prevent or delay the need for angioplasty or a coronary artery bypass graft CABG.
Some common medications used to treat CAD are: These medications are all used for a variety of purposes, from pain management to lowering blood pressure.As far back as , Lancet published the “London bus‐driver study” explicating connections between low physical activity and coronary heart disease as an occupational outcome among bus conductors (Morris et .
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Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a very common and often "silent killer" of hundreds of thousands of people per year.
Chapter 3: Stress and Illness/ Disease; Chapter 3: Stress and Illness/ Disease We Will Write A Custom Essay Sample On Chapter 3: Stress and A behavior pattern associated with the development of coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis. clogging of the coronary arteries. Arteriosclerosis. Stress can eventually lead to swelling in the circulatory system, mainly in the coronary arteries, which links stress to a heart attack (Stoppler, ). [tags: Emotion, Anxiety, Psychology, Feeling]. Obesity is a serious medical condition that can cause complications such as metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, high .
It is a disease that affects the coronary arteries, which run along the outside of the heart. 3/5(10). Hurricane Katrina Facts National Geographic Hurricane katrina facts national geographic 8 Hours Fashion Avenue zip reportage guerre libanaise cbs news reporter says white house screamed.
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