Print this page A unique leader Oliver Cromwell rose from the middle ranks of English society to be Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, the only non-royal ever to hold that position. He played a leading role in bringing Charles I to trial and to execution; he undertook the most complete and the most brutal military conquest ever undertaken by the English over their neighbours; he championed a degree of religious freedom otherwise unknown in England before the last one hundred years; but the experiment he led collapsed within two years of his death, and his corpse dangled from a gibbet at Tyburn. He was - and remains - one of the most contentious figures in world history Cromwell had been converted to a strong puritan faith Oliver Cromwell was born on 25 April in Huntingdon.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message The phases of Milton's life parallel the major historical and political divisions in Stuart Britain.
Milton studied, travelled, wrote poetry mostly for private circulation, and launched a career as pamphleteer and publicist under the increasingly personal rule of Charles I and its breakdown into constitutional confusion and war.
The shift in accepted attitudes in government placed him in public office under the Commonwealth of Englandfrom being thought dangerously radical and even heretical, and he even acted as an official spokesman in certain of his publications.
The Restoration of deprived Milton, now completely blind, of his public platform, but this period saw him complete most of his major works of poetry. Milton's views developed from his very extensive reading, as well as travel and experience, from his student days of the s to the English Civil War.
The senior John Milton — moved to London around after being disinherited by his devout Catholic father Richard Milton for embracing Protestantism. In London, the senior John Milton married Sarah Jeffrey — and found lasting financial success as a scrivener.
The elder Milton was noted for his skill as a musical composer, and this talent left his son with a lifelong appreciation for music and friendships with musicians such as Henry Lawes. Research suggests that Young's influence served as the poet's introduction to religious radicalism.
There he began the study of Latin and Greek, and the classical languages left an imprint on both his poetry and prose in English he also wrote in Italian and Latin. John Milton at age 10 by Cornelis Janssens van Ceulen. Milton's first datable compositions are two psalms done at age 15 at Long Bennington.
One contemporary source is the Brief Lives of John Aubreyan uneven compilation including first-hand reports. In the work, Aubrey quotes Christopher, Milton's younger brother: Aubrey adds, ""His complexion exceeding faire—he was so faire that they called him the Lady of Christ's College.
He graduated with a B.
Milton may have been rusticated suspended in his first year for quarrelling with his tutor, Bishop William Chappell. Based on remarks of John AubreyChappell "whipt" Milton. InMilton's tutor was Nathaniel Tovey.
He also befriended Anglo-American dissident and theologian Roger Williams. Milton tutored Williams in Hebrew in exchange for lessons in Dutch.
Having once watched his fellow students attempting comedy upon the college stage, he later observed 'they thought themselves gallant men, and I thought them fools'. His own corpus is not devoid of humour, notably his sixth prolusion and his epitaphs on the death of Thomas Hobson.
While at college, he wrote a number of his well-known shorter English poems, among them "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity", his "Epitaph on the admirable Dramaticke Poet, W.
Shakespeare" his first poem to appear in printL'Allegroand Il Penseroso. Study, poetry, and travel[ edit ] Further information: Early life of John Milton It appears in all his writings that he had the usual concomitant of great abilities, a lofty and steady confidence in himself, perhaps not without some contempt of others; for scarcely any man ever wrote so much, and praised so few.
Of his praise he was very frugal; as he set its value high, and considered his mention of a name as a security against the waste of time, and a certain preservative from oblivion. He also lived at HortonBerkshire, from and undertook six years of self-directed private study.
Hill argues that this was not retreat into a rural idyll; Hammersmith was then a "suburban village" falling into the orbit of London, and even Horton was becoming deforested and suffered from the plague.
Milton's intellectual development can be charted via entries in his commonplace book like a scrapbooknow in the British Library. As a result of such intensive study, Milton is considered to be among the most learned of all English poets.
In addition to his years of private study, Milton had command of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, Spanish, and Italian from his school and undergraduate days; he also added Old English to his linguistic repertoire in the s while researching his History of Britain, and probably acquired proficiency in Dutch soon after.
Comus argues for the virtuousness of temperance and chastity. He contributed his pastoral elegy Lycidas to a memorial collection for one of his fellow-students at Cambridge. Drafts of these poems are preserved in Milton's poetry notebook, known as the Trinity Manuscript because it is now kept at Trinity CollegeCambridge.
He met famous theorists and intellectuals of the time, and was able to display his poetic skills.
For specific details of what happened within Milton's " grand tour ", there appears to be just one primary source: Milton's own Defensio Secunda.Anyway, armed with all this troubling research, in our business we started thinking about whether we were as afflicted by unconscious bias, when employing new staff, as everyone else seemed to be.
Cromwell expected the Rump to take advantage of these signs of God's Providence (as he saw it) to push through religiously inspired reformist legislation. However, the Rump only showed distrust towards the growing power of the Army and was primarily concerned with legislation ensuring its own survival.
The Rump is better served and Steve Pincus has shown just how far its foreign policy was guided by a millenarian vision of Protestant victory: a vision which led directly to war with the rather less idealistic Dutch in The collapse of the Nominated Assembly ushered in the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell under the Army's Instrument of Government.
Derided by Royalists as a fanatical rabble, the Nominated Assembly was nicknamed "Barebone's Parliament" after one of its members, Praise-God Barbon, a London merchant and Independent.
The Rump Parliament was formed in after a long war between Parliament and King Charles I. The Rump Parliament was founded on the ideas that a king with too much power was a bad thing. With the Rump Parliament, the monarchy was abolished from England and replaced with a republic government.
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